The museum was founded in 1968, in the area of the historic military airfield Prague-Kbely, the first air base built after the constitution of Czechoslovakia in 1918. Due to both the quantity and quality of its collections, it is one of to the largest air museums in Europe. Currently the collections contain 275 aircrafts, 85 of which are exhibited in four indoor halls, 25 are displayed in the open air, 155 are stored in depositories, and 10 planes, fully operational, are still in service. Many aircraft are unique in the world.
The exposition is closely related to the history of Czechoslovak and Czech aviation, especially its military branch. Several other types of foreign important aircraft are also exhibited for comparison, together with numerous aircraft engines, parts of airframes, armament, uniforms, banners, marks of distinction and other relics related to the history of Czechoslovak and Czech aviation.